A.H./632 A.D., immediately following Hijjatul-Wada' حجة
الوداع (the Farewell Pilgrimage, the last pilgrimage performed by
Prophet Muhammad), a divine order was revealed to the Prophet to convey the
remaining Islamic tenets: the annual pilgrimage to Mecca and the Imamate of the
Twelve Infallible Imams. The Prophet called on the faithful to accompany him on
his last pilgrimage; he knew that it would be his last and that he would soon
have to leave this temporary abode for the eternal one. More than one hundred
and twenty thousand Muslims responded to his call.
and his company put on the ihram garbs at the appropriate time at Masjid
al-Shajara, a short distance from Mecca, his birthplace, which he entered on
Dhul-Hijja 5, 10 A.H./March 6, 632 A.D. The Prophet's call reached Yemen where
Ali ibn Abu Talib (ﻉ) was acting as his representative. Twelve thousand
Yemenite pilgrims came out headed by Ali in response to the Prophet's call to
accompany him on his historic Pilgrimage, bringing the total number of those
early pilgrims to more than one hundred and thirty-two thousand.
Islamic pilgrimage starts in the month of Dhul-Hijja (month of the pilgrimage),
the last Islamic lunar calendar month, and continues for at least ten days.
First, each pilgrim dons a special garb called ihram; males' ihram احرام consists
of two white sheets or towels covering the upper and lower parts of the body,
whereas females wear a full white cotton outfit, simple and modest. This ihram
reminds the pilgrim of his/her death and of the equality of all before God.
pilgrims perform the same rituals; none receives any favorable treatment or
distinction on account of his status, power, or wealth. The pilgrimage starts
by the tawaf, the circling of the Ka'ba seven times. The Ka'ba is
identified in Islamic literature as an earthly counterpart to the Almighty's
Throne ('Arsh) in heaven where the angels circle it in adoration.
in imitation of those angels, Muslim pilgrims circle the Ka'ba in adoration of
their Lord. The tawaf طواف is followed by
the Sa'i سعي: the pilgrims run back and forth seven
times between the -Safa and the Marwa in commemoration of Hagar (Hajar), mother
of Ishmael, frantically searching for water for her newborn son Ishmael.
that, the pilgrims drink of the well of Zamzam which had appeared miraculously
for Hagar and Ishmael, wash with it or use it to make ablution for prayers at
the Ka'ba but never to use it in the toilet; Zamzam is too sacred for such an
pilgrims leave Mecca for Muzdalifa, 'Arafa, and finally Mina to perform certain
rites which fall outside the scope of this book which is intended to be a
historical account of the Prophet of Islam, not one of fiqh. The
author is a writer, a researcher, someone who, according to a friend of mine,
“insists on finding out who the foundling's father is!” But he is not a faqih.
Now let us go back to our original story after having cast a glimpse at the
rite of the pilgrimage in Islam.
It was at
Arafa that the divine command was received by Prophet Muhammad to appoint ' Ali
as “Ameerul-Mo'mineen,” أمير المؤمنين the Commander
of the Faithful, title of the bearer of the highest temporal and religious
powers in the Islamic State, one reserved solely for caliphs, those who are
supposed to be the most knowledgeable of all people of secular and religious
problems and of how to solve them. Muhammad was also ordered to convey to Ali
the knowledge which the Almighty had bestowed on him so that it would not be
lost once he is dead.
the Prophet delivered two sermons in preparation for the great announcement to
come. In the first, he referred to Ali's caliphate and reminded the audience of
one particular hadith which he had conveyed to them on various
occasions and which is identified in books of hadith as “hadith
al-thaqalain حديث الثقلين”, tradition of the two weighty things
(the first being the Holy Qur’an and the second being the Prophet's Progeny,
the” Ahl al-Bayt” mentioned in verse 33 of Chapter 33 [al-Ahzab] of the Holy
delivered his second sermon at Masjid al-Khaif, also located in Mina in the
Meccan valley. In it, the Prophet reminded his audience of Ali's Imamate,
emphasizing the necessity of disseminating the contents of his sermon,
announcing that those present were duty-bound to convey it to those who were
absent. In both of these sermons, the Prophet publicly vested on Ali both
powers referred to above.
as the rituals of the pilgrimage were completed, and to be exact on Dhul-Hijja
17, 10 A.H./March 18, 632 A.D., the divine order came to the Prophet embedded
in verse 67 of Chapter 5 (a1-Ma'ida) quoted in the text of the Prophet's sermon
to follow. The Prophet immediately ordered Bilal ibn Rabah, his caller to
prayers and one of his faithful sahabaصحابه, to convey the
following order to the faithful: “Tomorrow,
nobody should lag behind but should go to Ghadeer Khumm غدير خم.”
“Ghadeer” means “swamp,” an area where rain water gathers to form a shallow
lake. Ghadeer Khumm is located near the crossroads of trade and pilgrimage
caravans coming from Medina, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Nejd on their way to
Mecca. The presence of water and a few old trees there served as a resting
place for trade caravans for centuries.
called Masjid al-Ghadeer, was later built on the same spot where the great
gathering took place to commemorate that momentous event, an event which has
unfortunately been forgotten by the vast majority of the Muslims who, by thus
forgetting, forgot the most important part of their creed, one without which
their faith is not complete at all according to the Prophet's sermon to follow
and according to the text of the Holy Qur’an...
announcement conveyed by Bilal was transmitted by one person to another till it
reached as far as Mecca proper and people were wondering about what it could
be. They had expected the Prophet to linger a little bit longer at Mecca where
the pilgrims could meet him and ask him whatever questions they had about this
new institution called “hajj” and about other religious matters.
morning of the next day, Dhul-Hijja 18, 10 A.H./March 19, 632A.D., the Prophet
and his 120,000 companions went to Ghadeer Khumm غدير خم, and so
didAli with his 12,000 Yemenite pilgrims who had to change their route to the
north instead of to the south where they would be home-bound.
Prophet also issued an order to four of his closest sahabis, namely
Selman-al-Farisi, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi andAmmar
ibn yasir, with whom the reader is already familiar, to clear the area where
the old trees stood, to uproot the thorn bushes, collect the rocks and stones,
and to clean the place and sprinkle it with water.
these men took a piece of cloth which they tied between two of those trees,
thus providing some shade.
Prophet told those sahaba that a ceremony that would last for
three continuous days would be held in that area. Then the same men piled the
rocks on top of each other and made a makeshift pulpit over them of camel
litters as high as the Prophet's own length.
another piece of cloth on the pulpit which was installed in the middle of the
crowd, giving the Prophet an overview of the whole gathering. A man was
selected to repeat loudly what the Prophet was saying so that those who stood
the furthermost would not miss a word.
The athan أذان for
the noon prayers
was recited, and the congregational (jama'a) صلاةالجماعة prayers
were led by the Prophet. After that, the Prophet ascended the pulpit and
signaled to Ali ibn Abu Talib (ﻉ) to stand on his right. Ali did so, standing
one pulpit step below the Prophet.
saying anything, the Prophet looked right and left to make sure that people
were prepared to listen to every word of his. The sun was so hot that people
had to pull some of their outer mantles over their heads and under their feet
in order to be able to somehow tolerate the heat.
the Prophet delivered his historic sermon which he intended, as the reader will
see, to be not only for the assembled crowd but for all those who were not
present at that gathering and for all their offspring, one generation after
another, till the Day of Judgment.
the text of the Prophet's sermon.
“All Praise is due to Allah Who is Exalted in His Unity, Near in His
Uniqueness, Sublime in His Authority, Magnanimous in His Dominance. He knows
everything; He subdues all creation through His might and evidence. He is
Praised always and forever, Glorified and has no end. He begins and He repeats,
and to Him every matter is referred.
the Creator of everything; He dominates with His power the earth and the heavens.
Holy, He is, and Praised, the Lord of the angels and of the spirits. His favors
overwhelm whatever He creates, and He is the Mighty over whatever He initiates.
He observes all eyes while no eye can observe Him.
Generous, Clement, Patient. His mercy encompasses everything, and so is His
giving. He never rushes His revenge, nor does He hasten the retribution they
deserve. He comprehends what the breast conceals and what the conscience hides.
No inner I thought can be concealed from Him, nor does He confuse one with
another. He encompasses everything, dominates everything, and subdues
is like Him. He initiates the creation from nothing; He is everlasting, living,
sustaining in the truth; He is greater than can be conceived by visions, while
He conceives all visions, the Eternal, the Knowing. None can describe Him by
seeing Him, nor can anyone find out how He is, be it by his intellect or by a
spoken word except through what leads to Him, the Sublime, the Mighty that He
that He is Allah, the One Who has filled time with His Holiness, the One Whose
Light overwhelms eternity, Who affects His will without consulting anyone;
there is no partner with Him in His decisions, nor is He assisted in running
His affairs. He shaped what He made without following a preexisting model, and
He created whatever He created without receiving help from anyone, nor did
doing so exhaust Him nor frustrated His designs.
created, and so it was, and He initiated, and it became visible. So He is
Allah, the One and Only God, the One Who does whatever He does extremely well.
He is the Just One Who never oppresses, the most Holy to Whom all affairs are
further testify that He is Allah before Whom everything is humbled, to Whose
Greatness everything is humiliated, and to Whose Dignity everything submits. He
is the King of every domain and the One Who places planets in their orbits. He
controls the movements of the sun and of the moon, each circles till a certain
time. He makes the night follow the day and makes the day follow the night,
seeking it incessantly. He splits the spine of every stubborn tyrant and
annihilates every mighty devil.
has there been any opponent opposing Him nor a peer assisting Him. He is
Independent; He never begets nor is He begotten, and none can ever be His
equal. He is One God, the Glorified Lord. His will is done; His word is the
law. He knows, so He takes account. He causes death and gives life. He makes
some poor and others rich. He causes some to smile and others to cry.
some nearer to Him while distancing others from Him. He withholds and He gives.
The domain belongs to Him and so is all the Praise. In His hand is all
goodness, and He can do anything at all. He lets the night cover the day and
the day cover the night; there is no god but He, the Sublime, the oft-Forgiving
One. He responds to the supplication; He gives generously; He computes the
breath; He is the Lord of the jinns and of mankind, the One Whom nothing
confuses, nor is He annoyed by those who cry for His help, nor is He fed-up by
those who persist.
safeguards the righteous against sinning, and He enables the winners to win. He
is the Master of the faithful, the Lord of the Worlds Who deserves the
appreciation of all those whom He created and is praised no matter what. I
praise Him and always thank Him for the ease He brings me and for the
constriction, in hardship and in prosperity, and I believe in Him, in His
angels, in His Books and messengers.
to His Command and I obey, and I initiate the doing of whatever pleases Him,
and I submit to His decree hoping to acquire obedience to Him and fear of His
penalty, for He is Allah against Whose designs nobody should feel secure, nor
should anyone ever fear His “oppression.”
testify, even against my own soul, that I am His servant, and I bear witness
that he is my Lord. I convey what He reveals to me, being cautious lest I
should not do it, so a catastrophe from Him would befall on me, one which none
can keep away, no matter how great his design may be and how sincere his
no god but He, for He has informed me that if I do not convey what He has just
revealed to me in honor of Ali in truth, I will not have conveyed His Message
at all, and He, the Praised and the Exalted One, has guaranteed for me to
protect me from the (evil) people, and He is Allah, the One Who suffices, the
Sublime. He has just revealed to me the following (verse):
Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. O
Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to ' Ali),
and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and
Allah shall protect you from (evil) people; surely Allah will not guide the
unbelieving people (Qur’an, 5:67).
people! I have not committed any shortcoming in conveying what Allah Almighty
revealed to me, and I am now going to explain to you the reason behind the
revelation of this verse: Three times did Gabriel command me on behalf of the
Peace, my Lord, Who is the source of all peace, to thus make a stand in order
to inform everyone, black and white, that: Ali ibn Abu Talib is my
Brother, Wasi, and successor over my nation and the Imam after me,
the one whose status to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except there will be
no prophet after me, and he is your master next only to Allah and to His
Messenger, and Allah has already revealed to me the same in one of the fixed
verses of His Book saying,
Master is Allah and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up
prayers and pay zakat even as they bow down” (Qur’an, 5:55),
ibn Abu Talib the one who keeps up prayers, who pays zakat even
as he bows down, seeking to please Allah, the Sublime, the Almighty, on each
and every occasion.
Gabriel to plead to the Peace to excuse me from having to convey such a message
to you, O people! Due to my knowledge that the pious are few1 while
the hypocrites are many, and due to those who will blame me, and due to the
trickery of those who ridicule Islam and whom Allah described in His Book as
saying with their tongues contrarily to what their hearts conceal, thinking
lightly of it, while it is with Allah magnanimous, and due to the abundance of
their harm to me, so much so that they called me “ears” and claimed that I am
so because of being so much in his (Ali's) company, always welcoming him,
loving him and being so much pleased with him till Allah, the Exalted and the
Sublime One, revealed in this regard the verse saying:
there are some of them who harm the (feelings of the) Prophet and say: He is an
ear (uthun ذنأ ; i.e. he always listens to Ali). Say: One who listens
(to Ali) is good for you; He believes in Allah and testifies to the conviction
of the believers and a mercy for those of you who believe; and those who (thus)
harm the Messenger of Allah shall have a painful punishment” (Qur’an, 9:61).
wished to name those who have called me so, I would have called them by their
names, and I would have pointed them out. I would have singled them out and
called them by what they really are, but I, by Allah, am fully aware of their
affairs. Yet despite all of that, Allah insisted that I should convey what He
has just revealed to me in honor of Ali. Then the Prophet recited the following
Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to ' Ali),
and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and
Allah shall protect you from (evil) people (Qur’an, 5:67).
people! Comprehend (the implications of) what I have just said, and again do
comprehend it, and be (further) informed that Allah has installed him (Ali) as
your Master and Imam, obligating the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who
follow them in goodness to obey him, and so must everyone who lives in the
desert or in the city, who is a non-Arab or an Arab, who is a free man or a
slave, who is young or old, white or black, and so should everyone who believes
in His Unity.
decree shall be carried out. His (Ali's) word is binding; his command is
obligating; cursed is whoever opposes him, blessed with mercy is whoever
follows him and believes in him, for Allah has already forgiven him and
forgiven whoever listens to him and obeys him.
people! This is the last stand I make in such a situation; so, listen and obey,
and submit to the Command of Allah, your Lord, for Allah, the Exalted and the
Sublime One, is your Master and Lord, then next to Him is His Messenger and
Prophet who is now addressing you, then after me ' Ali is your Master and Imam
according to the Command of Allah, your Lord, then the lmams from among my
progeny, his offspring, till the Day you meet Allah and His Messenger.
is permissible except what is deemed so by Allah, His Messenger, and they (the
Imams), and nothing is prohibitive except what is deemed so by Allah and His
Messenger and they (the Imams). Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, has
made me acquainted with what is permissible and what is prohibitive, and I have
conveyed to you what my Lord has taught me of His Book, of what it decrees as
permissible or as prohibitive.
people! Prefer him (Ali) over all others! There is no knowledge except that
Allah has divulged it to me, and all the knowledge I have learned I have
divulged to Imam al-Muttaqin امام المتقين (leader of the
righteous), and there is no knowledge (that I know) except that I divulged it
to Ali, and he is al-Imam al-Mubin امام مبين (the
evident Imam) whom Allah mentions in Surat Ya-Sin:
everything We have computed is in (the knowledge of) an evident Imam” (Qur’an,
people! Do not abandon him, nor should you flee away from him, nor should you
be too arrogant to accept his authority, for he is the one who guides to
righteousness and who acts according to it. He defeats falsehood and prohibits
others from acting according to it, accepting no blame from anyone while
seeking to please Allah.
He is the
first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger; none preceded him as such. and
he is the one who offered his life as a sacrifice for the Messenger of Allah
and who was in the company of the Messenger of Allah while no other man was. He
is the first of all people to offer prayers and the first to worship Allah with
me. I ordered him, on behalf of Allah, to sleep in my bed, and he did, offering
his life as a sacrifice for my sake.
people! Prefer him (over all others), for Allah has preferred him, and accept
him, for Allah has appointed him (as your leader). O people! He is an Imam
appointed by Allah, and Allah shall never accept the repentance of anyone who
denies his authority, nor shall He forgive him; this is a must decree from
Allah never to do so to anyone who opposes him, and that He shall torment him
with a most painful torment for all time to come, for eternity; so, beware lest
you should oppose him and thus enter the fire the fuel of which is the people
and the stones prepared for the unbelievers.
people! By Allah! All past prophets and messengers conveyed the glad tiding of
my advent, and I, by Allah, am the seal of the prophets and of the messengers
and the argument against all beings in the heavens and on earth. Anyone who
doubts this commits apostasy similar to that of the early jahiliyya,
and anyone who doubts anything of what I have just said doubts everything which
has been revealed to me, and anyone who doubts any of the Imams doubts all of
them, and anyone who doubts us shall be lodged in the fire.
people! Allah, the most Exalted and the Almighty, has bestowed this virtue on
me out of His kindness towards Ali and as a boon to Ali and there is no god but
He; to Him all praise belongs in all times, for eternity, and in all
circumstances. O people! Prefer Ali (over all others), for he is the very best
of all people after me, be they males or females, so long as Allah sends down
His sustenance, so long as there are beings. Cursed and again cursed, condemned
and again condemned, is anyone who does not accept this statement of mine and
who does not agree to it. Gabriel himself has informed me of the same on behalf
of Allah Almighty Who he said (in Gabriel's words): “Anyone who antagonizes Ali
and refuses to accept his wilayat shall incur My curse on him
and My wrath.”
let every soul consider what it has sent forth for the morrow, and be careful
of (your duty to) Allah” (Qur’an, 59:18),
not make your oaths a means of deceit between you lest a foot should slip
after its stability” (Qur’an, 16:94),
is fully aware of all what you do” (Qur’an, 58: 13).
people! He (Ali) is janb-Allah mentioned in the Book of Allah,
the Sublime One: The Almighty, forewarning his (Ali's) adversaries, says,
soul should say: O woe to me for what I fell short of my duty to Allah, and
most surely I was of those who laughed to scorn” (Qur’an, 39:56).
people! Study the Qur’an and comprehend its verses, look into its fixed verses
and do not follow what is similar thereof, for by Allah, none shall explain to you
what it forbids you from doing, nor clarify its exegesis, other than the one
whose hand I am taking and whom I am lifting to me, the one whose arm I am
taking and whom I am lifting, so that I may enable you to understand that:
Whoever among you takes me as his master, this, Ali is his master, and he is
Ali ibn Abu Talib, my Brother and wasi, and his appointment as
your wali is from Allah, the Sublime, the Exalted One, a
commandment which He revealed to me.
people! Ali and the good ones from among my offspring from his loins are the
Lesser Weight, while the Qur’an is the Greater One: each one of them informs
you of and agrees with the other. They shall never part till they meet me at
the Pool (of Kawthar). They are the Trustees of Allah over His creation, the
rulers on His earth.
now I have performed my duty and conveyed the Message. Indeed you have heard
what I have said and explained. Indeed Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime,
has said, and so have Ion behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime,
that there is no Ameerul-Mu'mineen أمير المؤمنين (Commander of
the Faithful) save this Brother of mine; no authority over a
believer is permissible after me except to him.”
Prophet patted Ali's arm, lifting him up. Since the time when the Messenger of
Allah ascended the pulpit, Ameerul-Mo'mineen was one pulpit step below where
the Messenger of Allah had seated himself on his pulpit. As Ali was on his
(Prophet's) right side, one pulpit step lower, now they both appeared to the
gathering to be on the same level; the Prophet lifted him up. The Prophet then
raised his hands to the heavens in supplication while Ali's leg was touching
the knee of the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet continued his sermon thus:
people! This is Ali, my Brother, Wasi, the one who comprehends my
knowledge, and my successor over my nation, over everyone who believes in me.
He is the one entrusted with explaining the Book of Allah, the most Exalted
One, the Sublime, and the one who invites people to His path. He is the one who
does whatever pleases Him, fighting His enemies, befriending His friends who
obey Him, prohibiting disobedience to Him.
He is the
successor of the Messenger of Allah and Ameerul- Mo'mineen, the man assigned by
Allah to guide others, killer of the renegades and of those who believe in
equals to Allah, those who violate the Commandments of Allah. Allah says,
shall not be changed, nor am I in the least unjust to the servants” (Qur’an,
Your Command, O Lord, do I (submit and) say, O Allah! Befriend whoever
befriends him (Ali) and be the enemy of whoever antagonizes him; support
whoever supports him and abandon whoever abandons him; curse whoever disavows
him, and let Your Wrath descend on whoever usurps his right.
You revealed a verse in honor of Ali, Your wali, in its explanation
and to effect Your own appointment of him this very day did You say,
have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favor on you, and chosen
for you Islam as a religion” (Qur’an, 5.3);
whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him,
and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers” (Qur’an, 3:85).
implore You to testify that I have conveyed (Your Message).
people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has perfected your religion through
his (Ali's) Imamate; so, whoever rejects him as his Imam or rejects those of my
offspring from his loins who assume the same status (as lmams) till the Day of
Judgment when they shall all be displayed before Allah, the Exalted and the
Sublime, these are the ones whose (good) deeds shall be nil and void in the
life of this world and in the hereafter, and in the fire shall they be lodged
torture shall not be decreased, nor shall they be given a respite”
people! Here is Ali, the one who has supported me more than anyone else among
you, the one who most deserves my gratitude, the one who is closest of all of
you to me and the one who is the very dearest to me.
the Exalted and the Sublime, and I are pleased with him, and no verse of the
Holy Qur’an expressing Allah's Pleasure except that he is implied therein, nor
has any verse of praise been revealed in the Qur’an except that he is implied
therein, nor has the Lord testified to Paradise in the (Qur’anic) Chapter
there not come over man a long period of time when he was nothing (not even)
mentioned?” (Qur’an, 76:1)
this Chapter revealed except in his praise.
people! He is the one who supports the religion of Allah, who argues on behalf
of the Messenger of Allah. He is the pious, the pure, the guide, the one
rightly guided. Your Prophet is the best of all prophets, and your wasi is
the best of all wasis, and his offspring are the best of wasis.
O people! Each prophet's progeny is from his own loins whereas mine is from the
loins of Arneerul-Mo'mineen Ali.
people! Iblis caused Adam to be dismissed from the garden through envy; so, do
not envy him lest your deeds should be voided and lest your feet should slip
away, for Adam was sent down to earth after having committed only one sin, and
he was among the elite of Allah's creation. How, then, will be your case, and
you being who you are, and among you are enemies of Allah? Indeed, none hates
Ali except a wretch, and none accepts Ali's wilayat except a pious person.
believes in him except a sincere mu'min, and in honor of, Ali was
the Chapter of Asr (Ch. 103) revealed, I swear to it by Allah: “In the Name of
Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. I swear by time that most surely man is in
loss” (Qur’an, 103:1-2) except Ali who believed and was pleased with the truth
and with perseverance.
people! I have sought Allah to be my Witness and have conveyed my Message to
you, and the Messenger is obligated only to clearly convey (his Message). O
Allah as Re ought to be feared, and do not die except as Muslims” (Qur’an,
in what We have revealed, verifying what you have, before We alter faces then
turn them on their backs or curse them as We cursed the violators of the
Sabbath” (Qur’an, 4:47).
Redid not imply anyone in this verse except a certain band of my sahaba whom
I know by name and by lineage, and I have been ordered (by my Lord) to pardon
them; so, let each person deal with Ali according to what he finds in his heart
of love or of hatred.
people! The noor from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime,
flows through me then through ` Ali ibn Abu Talib then in the progeny that
descends from him till al-Qa'im al-Mahdi القائم المهدي (عج), who
shall effect the justice of Allah, and who will take back any right belonging
to us because Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, made us Hujjat over those who
take us lightly, the stubborn ones, those who act contrarily to our word, who
are treacherous, who are sinners, who are oppressors, who are usurpers, from
the entire world.
people! I warn you that I am the Messenger of Allah; messengers before me have
already passed away; so, should I die or should I be killed, are you going to
turn on your heels? and whoever turns on his heels shall not harm Allah in the
least, and Allah shall reward those who are grateful, those who persevere. '
Ali is surely the one described with perseverance and gratitude, then after him
are my offspring from his loins.
people! Do not think that you are doing me a favor by your accepting Islam.
Nay! Do not think that you are doing Allah such a favor lest He should void
your deeds, lest His wrath should descend on you, lest He should try you with a
flame of fire and brass; surely your Lord is ever-watchful.
people! There shall be Imams after me who shall invite people to the fire, and
they shall not be helped on the Day of Judgment. O people! Allah and I are both
clear of them. O people! They and their supporters and followers shall be in
the lowest rung of the fire; miserable, indeed, is the resort of the arrogant
ones. Indeed, these are the folks of thesahifa [a covenant written
by a number of very prominent Muslims, some of whom are sanctified by some
Muslims, pledging to assassinate the Prophet; it was written and signed then
buried at one of the walls of the Ka'ba]; so, let each one of you look into hissahifa!
[This reference to the sahifa has been overlooked by most
people with the exception of a small band, and I, author of this book,
will Insha-Allah shed light on thissahifa in my
later writings. The Prophet continued his historic sermon thus:]
people! I am calling for it to be an Imamate and a succession confined to my
offspring till the Day of Judgment, and I have conveyed only what I have been
commanded (by my Lord) to convey to drive the argument home against everyone present
or absent and on everyone who has witnessed or who has not, who is already born
or he is yet to be born; therefore, let those present here convey it to those
who are absent, and let the father convey it to his son, and so on till the Day
of Judgment. And they shall make the Imamate after me a property, a
usurpation; may Allah curse the usurpers who usurp, and it is then that
you, O jinns and mankind, will get the full attention of the One Who shall
cause a flame of fire and brass to be hurled on you, and you shall not achieve
people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, is not to let you be whatever you
want to be except so that He may distinguish the bad ones from among you from
the good, and Allah is not to make you acquainted with the unknown. O people!
There shall be no town that falsifies except that Allah shall annihilate it on
account of its falsehood before the Day of Judgment, and He shall give al-lmam
al-Mahdi (عج) authority over it, and surely Allah's promise is true.
Most of the early generations before you have strayed, and by Allah, He surely
annihilated the early generations, and He shall annihilate the later ones.
Allah Almighty has said,
not destroy the former generations? Then did We follow them up with later ones.
Even thus shall We deal with the guilty. Woe on that Day to the rejecters!”
(Qur’an, 77: 16-19).
people! Allah has ordered me to do and not to do, and I have ordered ' Ali to
do and not to do, so he learned what should be done and what should not;
therefore. you should listen to his orders so that you may be safe, and you
should obey him so that you may be rightly guided.
Do not do
what he forbids you from doing so that you may acquire wisdom. Agree with him,
and do not let your paths be different from his. O people! I am as-Sirat
al-Mustaqeem (the Straight Path) of Allah whom He commanded you to follow, and
it is after me Ali then my offspring from his loins, the Imams of Guidance:
They guide to the truth and act accordingly.”
Prophet recited the entire text of Surat al-Fatiha and commented by saying: “It
is in my honor that this (Sura) was revealed, including them (the Imams)
specifically; they are the friends of Allah for whom there shall be no fear,
nor shall they grieve; truly the Party of Allah are the winners. Indeed, it is
their enemies who are the impudent ones, the deviators, the brethren of Satan;
they inspire each other with embellished speech out of their haughtiness.
Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One, the
Great, mentions in His Book saying,
shall not find a people who believe in Allah and in the latter Day befriending
those who act in opposition to Allah and to His Prophet, even though they may
be their own fathers or sons or brothers or kinsfolk; these are they into whose
hearts He has impressed conviction” (Qur’an, 58:22).
their (Imams') friends are the mu'mins (believers) whom Allah,
the Exalted One, the Sublime, describes as:
who believe and do not mix up their faith with iniquity, those are the ones who
shall have the security, and they are the rightly guided” (Qur’an, 6:82).
their friends are those who believed and never doubted. Indeed, their friends
are the ones who shall enter Paradise in peace and security; the angels shall
receive them with welcome saying, “Peace with you! Enter it and reside in it
their friends shall be rewarded with Paradise where they shall be sustained
without having to account for anything. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who
shall be hurled into the fire. Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall
hear the exhalation of hell as it increases in intensity, and they shall see it
sigh. Indeed, their enemies are the ones thus described by Allah:
a nation enters, it shall curse its sister...” (Qur’an, 7:38).
their enemies are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime,
a group is cast into it, its keepers shall ask them: Did any warner not come to
you? They shall say: Yea! Indeed, there came to us a warner but we rejected
(him) and said: Allah has not revealed anything; you are only in a great error.
And they shall say: Had we but listened or pondered, we would not have been
among the inmates of the burning fire. So they shall acknowledge their sins,
but far will be forgiveness) from the inmates of the burning fire” (Qur’an,
their friends are the ones who fear their Lord in the unseen; forgiveness shall
be theirs and a great reward.
people! What a difference it is between the fire and the great reward! O
people! Our enemy is the one whom Allah censures and curses, whereas our friend
is everyone praised and loved by Allah. O people! I am the Warner (nathir نذير) and
Ali is the one who brings glad tidings (basheer بشير). O
people! I am the one who warns (Mundhir) while ' Ali is the guide (hadi هادي).
O people! I am a Prophet (nabi نبي) and Ali is the successor
I am a Messenger (rasool رسول) and Ali is the Imam and the wasi after
me, and so are the Imams after him from among his offspring. Indeed, I am their
father, and they shall descend from his loins. Indeed, the seal of the lmams
from among us is al-Qa'im al-Mahdi. He, indeed, is the one who shall come out
so that the creed may prevail. He, indeed, is the one who shall seek revenge
against the oppressor.
indeed, is the one who conquers the forts and demolishes them. He, indeed, is
the one who subdues every tribe from among the people of polytheism and the one
to guide it. He is the one who shall seek redress for all friends of Allah. He
is the one who supports the religion of Allah. He ever derives (his knowledge)
from a very deep ocean.
identify each man of distinction by his distinction and every man of ignorance
by his ignorance. He shall be the choicest of Allah's beings and the chosen
one. He is the heir of all (branches of) knowledge, the one who encompasses
every perception. He conveys on behalf of his Lord, the Exalted and the
Sublime, who points out His miracles.
He is the
wise, the one endowed with wisdom, the one on whom (Divine) authority is
vested. Glad tidings of him have been conveyed by past generations, yet he is
the one who shall remain as a Hujja, and there shall be no Hujja after him nor
any right except with him, nor any noor except with him. None,
indeed, shall subdue him, nor shall he ever be vanquished. He is the friend of
Allah on His earth, the judge over His creatures, the custodian of what is
evident and what is hidden of His.
people! I have explained (everything) for you and enabled you to comprehend it,
and this Ali shall after me explain everything to you. At the conclusion of
my khutba, I shall call on you to shake hands with me to swear your
allegiance to him and to recognize his authority, then to shake hands with him
after you have shaken hands with me. I had, indeed, sworn allegiance to Allah,
and Ali had sworn allegiance to me, and I on behalf of Allah, the Exalted One
and the Sublime, I require you to swear the oath of allegiance to him:
those who swear (the oath of) allegiance to you do but swear allegiance to
Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands; therefore, whoever reneges (from
his oath), he reneges only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills
what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward”
people! The pilgrimage (hajj) and the 'umra are among Allah's rituals;
whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no
blame on him if he goes round them [Safa and Marwa] both” (Qur’an, 2:158).
Perform your pilgrimage to the House, for no members of a family went there
except that they became wealthy, and receive glad tidings! None failed to do so
except that their lineage was cut-off and were impoverished. O people! No
believer stands at the standing place [at 'Arafa] except that Allah forgives
his past sins till then; so, once his pilgrimage is over, he resumes his deeds.
O people! Pilgrims are assisted, and their expenses shall be replenished, and
Allah never suffers the rewards of the doers of good to be lost.
people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House by perfecting your religion and by
delving into fiqh, and do not leave the sacred places except after
having repented and abandoned (the doing of anything prohibited). O people!
Uphold prayers and pay thezakat as Allah, the Exalted One and the
Sublime, commanded you; so, if time lapses and you were short of doing so or
you forgot, Ali is your wali and he will explain for you.
He is the
one whom Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, appointed for you after me as the
custodian of His creation. He is from me and I am from him, and he and those
who will succeed him from my progeny shall inform you of anything you ask them
about, and they shall clarify whatever you do not know.
Halal and haram things
are more than I can count for you now or explain, for a commandment to enjoin
what is permissible and a prohibition from what is not permissible are both on
the same level, so I was ordered (by my Lord) to take your oath of allegiance
and to make a covenant with you to accept what I brought you from Allah, the
Exalted One and the Sublime, with regards to Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to
the wasisafter him who are from me and from him, a standing Imamate
whose seal is al-Mahdi till the Day he meets Allah Who decrees and Who judges.
people! I never refrained from informing you of everything permissible or
prohibitive; so, do remember this and safeguard it and advise each other to do
likewise; do not alter it; do not substitute it with something else. I am now
repeating what I have already said: Uphold the prayers and pay the zakat and
enjoin righteousness and forbid abomination.
of enjoining righteousness is to resort to my speech and to convey it to
whoever did not attend it and to order him on my behalf to accept it and to
(likewise) order him not to violate it, for it is an order from Allah, the
Exalted and the Sublime, and there is no knowledge of enjoining righteousness
nor prohibiting abomination except that it is with ama'soom Imam امام
people! The Qur’an informs you that the Imams after him are his (Ali's)
descendants, and I have already informed you that they are from me and from
him, for Allah says in His Book,
made it a word to continue in his posterity so that they may return “ (Qur’an,
have said: “You shall not stray as long as you uphold both of them
(simultaneously).” O people! (Uphold) piety, (uphold) piety, and be forewarned
of the Hour as Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has said,
people! Guard (yourselves) against (punishment from) your Lord; surely the
violence of the Hour is a grievous thing” (Qur’an, 22:1).
death, resurrection, the judgment, the scales, and the account before the Lord
of the Worlds, and (remember) the rewards and the penalty. So whoever does a
good deed shall be rewarded for it, and whoever commits a sin shall have no
place in the Gardens.
You are more numerous than (it is practical) to shake hands with me all at the
same time, and Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, commanded me to require you
to confirm what authority I have vested on Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to whoever
succeeds him of the Imams from me and from him, since I have just informed you
that my offspring are from his loins.
therefore, should say in one voice: “We hear, and we obey; we accept and we are
bound by what you have conveyed to us from our Lord and yours with regard to
our Imam Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to the Imams, your sons from his loins. We
swear the oath of allegiance to you in this regard with our hearts, with our
souls, with our tongues, with our hands. According to it shall we live, and
according to it shall we die, and according to it shall we be resurrected. We
shall not alter anything or substitute anything with another, nor shall we
doubt nor deny nor suspect, nor shall we violate our covenant nor abrogate the
admonished us on behalf of Allah with regard to Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to
the Imams whom you mentioned to be from your offspring from among his
descendants after him: al-Hassan and al-Hussain and to whoever is appointed (as
such) by Allah after them. The covenant and the pledge are taken from us, from
our hearts, from our souls, from our tongues, from our conscience, from our
does so by his handshake, it shall be so, or otherwise testified to it by his
tongue, and we do not seek any substitute for it, nor shall Allah see our souls
deviating there from. We shall convey the same on your behalf to anyone near
and far of our offspring and families, and we implore Allah to testify to it,
and surely Allah suffices as the Witness and you, too, shall testify for us.
people! What are you going to say?! Allah knows every sound and the innermost
of every soul;
chooses the right guidance, it is for his own soul that he is rightly guided,
and whoever strays, it is only to its detriment that he goes astray” (Qur’an,
Swear the oath of allegiance to Allah, and swear it to me, and swear it to Ali
Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to al-Hassan and al-Hussain and to the Imams from their
offspring in the life of this world and in the hereafter, a word that shall
always remain so. Allah shall annihilate anyone guilty of treachery and be merciful
on everyone who remains true to his word:
reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the harm of his own soul, and
whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty
reward” (Qur’an, 48:10).
people! Repeat what I have just told you to, and greet Ali with the title of
authority of “Ameerul-Mo'mineen” and say:
and we obey, O Lord! Your forgiveness (do we seek), and to You is the eventual
course” (Qur’an, 2:285),
praise is due to Allah Who guided us to this, and we would not have found the
way had it not been for Allah Who guided us” (Qur’an, 7:43).
people! The merits of Ali ibn Abu Talib with Allah, the Exalted and the
Sublime, the merits which are revealed in the Qur’an, are more numerous than I
can recount in one speech; so, whoever informs you of them and defines them for
you, you should believe him.
Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger and Ali and the Imams to whom I have
already referred shall attain a great victory. O people! Those foremost from
among you who swear allegiance to him and who pledge to obey him and who greet
him with the greeting of being the Commander of the Faithful are the ones who
shall win the Gardens of Felicity.
Say what brings you the Pleasure of Allah, for if you and all the people of the
earth disbelieve, it will not harm Allah in the least. O Lord! Forgive the
believers through what I have conveyed, and let Your Wrath descend on those who
renege, the apostates, and all Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.”
the Prophet of Allah (ﺹ) speak on behalf of the Almighty Who sent him as the
beacon of guidance not only for the Muslims but for all mankind. But the
question that forces itself here is: “What happened after that historic event?
Why did the Muslims forget, or pretend to have forgotten, their Prophet's
instructions with regards to Ali and supposedly “elected” someone else in his
this question requires the writing of another book and, indeed many such books
have been written. May the Almighty grant all of us guidance, and may He count
us among His true servants who recognize the truth when they see it, who abide
by His tenets, Who revere His Prophet and follow his instructions in all times,
in all climes,Allahomma Ameen اللهم آمين.
reader may wonder what happened following this Ghadeer incident. The answer is
very simple: The most prominent Muslims of the time prtended to have forgotten
it, so they met at سقيفة بني ساعدة the shed of Bani Saa'ida,
few meters from the Prophet's Mosque, where they kept for days fussing with
each other about who would succeed the Prophet (ﺹ) as the caliph while the
corpse of the Prophet (ﺹ) was lying in state waiting to be buried… and the rest
Ghadeer incident is immortalized in Arabic poetry. Hassan ibn Thabit, the
Prophet's poet, was there and then witnessing the appointment of Ali as أمير
المؤمنين Commander of the Faithful, so he composed the following lines
of poetry on the occasion which I roughly translated below:
يناديهم يوم الغدير نبيهم بخم، و أكرم بالنبي مناديا
يقول: فمن مولاكم و وليكم؟ فقالوا و لم يبدوا هناك التعاديا:
الهك مولانا و أنت ولينا و لن تجدن منا لك اليوم عاصيا
فقال له: قم يا علي فانني رضيتك من بعدي اماما و هاديا
و كان علي أرمد العين يبتغي لعينيه مما يشتكيه مداويا
فداواه خير الناس منه بريقه فبورك مرقيا و بورك راقيا
Prophet on the Ghadeer Day calls on them all
At Khumm, how great the Prophet is when he does call!
He said, “Who is your Master and Wali?”
They said, showing on that day no hostility,
“Our Master is our God while our Wali is you,
You shall find today none to disobey you.”
He said to him, “Stand up, O Ali, for I did find
“You to be and Imam after me and a guide.”
Ali was sore in the eyes and did seek a remedy
For that from which was complaining Ali,
So he was doctored with the saliva of the best of all,
So the one who received it and who gave it are blessed by all.
al-Qanduzi, Yanabi` al-Mawadda ينابيع المودة, p. 120)
who have the habit of casting doubt about anything in which they do not wish to
believe, we would like to state below some mostly classic references where
this Khutba of the Ghadeer is quoted. In these references the
reader can deliberate on the various portions of this historic sermon as quoted
in bits and pieces in these references. Most of these references are considered
reliable by the majority of Muslims, Sunnis and Shiites:
ad-Deen al-Sayyuti, Kitab al-Itqan, Vol. 1, p. 31.
al-Majlisi, Bihar.al-Anwar, Vol. 21, pp. 360-90, Vol. 37, pp.
111-235, and Vol. 41, p. 228.He Quotes book al-Ih'tijaj by
wal Nihaya, Vol. 5, p. 208.
Baghdad, V01. 1, p. 411 and V01. 8, p. 290.
Dimashq, Vol. 5, p. 210.
al-Jawziyya, Tadh'kirat al-Khawas, pp. 18-20.
al-Sa'ud's Tafseer, Vol. 8, p. 292.
Al-Tibari, Tafseer al-Qur’an, Vol. 3, p. 428 and Vol. 6, p. 46.
al-Fakhr al-Razi, al-Tafseer al-Kabeer, Vol. 3, p. 636.
fi USool al-Deen, p. 171.
al-Wusul, Vol. 1, p. 122.
Ghiyath ad-Din ibn Hammam, Tareekh Habib al-Siyar, V01. 1, p. 144.
al-Maqrizi, Khutat, p. 223.
al-Sayyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. 2, pp. 259, 298.
al-'Uqba, p. 68.
al-Ma'ani, Vol. 2, p. 348.
Mohibb al-Tabari, AI-Riyadh al-Nadhirah, Vol. 2, p.169. Look it up
also in his Tarikh.
al-Munir, Vol. 4, p. 364.
al-Hakim, al-Seera al-Halabiyya, Vol. 3, p. 302.
al-Mawahib, V01. 7, p. 13.
Hajar al-Asqalani, al-Sawa'iq al- Muhriqa, p. 26.
al-Badriq, al-'Umda, p. 52.
ad-Deen, 'Umdat al-Qari fi Shar'h al-Bukhari, V01. 8, p. 584.
Hassan al-Ameen, al-Ghadeer, V01. 2, p. 57.
Sharafud-Deen Sadr ad-Deen al-Mousawi, al-Fusul al-Muhimma, pp. 25-27.
'il al-Sahaba, p. 272.
al-Ghadeer, V01. 6, p. 218.
al-Ghumma, p. 94.
al-Talib, pp. 17, 28.
al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummal, Vol. 6, p. 397.
Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, V01. 4, p. 281.
al-Masabeeh, p. 272.
al-Athar, Vol. 3, p. 196.
al-Su'ul, p. 16.
36. Muftah al-Najat, p. 216.
37. al-Shahristani, al-Milal wal Nihal, V 01. 1, p. 220.
38. al-Khawarizmi, Manaqib, pp. 80, 94.
39. Ibn al-Maghazli, Manaqib, p. 232.
40. al-Qastalani, al-Mawahib, Vol. 2, p. 13.
41. al-Samhudi, Wafaal-Wafa', Vol. 2, p. 173.
As the reader can see, most of these references are highly
respected classic Sunni works that occupy a status in Islamic heritage.
Nevertheless, there are still some people who refuse to recognize the sun even
in broad daylight. We cannot help but feel sorry for them, and we pray for