16 Aug 2011
Wiladat Hazrat Imam Hasan (a.s.)
Heartiest Felicitations and Greetings to Holy Masoomeen (AS) ,Imam-e-Zamana (a.t.f.s) ,Rahber-e-Moazzam Ayatollah Syed Ali Khamenei , Mara'jeen Izaam ,Ulema-e-Karam, Momineen o Mominaat on the auspicious occassion of the birth anniversary of Hazrat Imam Hasan Ibn-e-Ali (Al-Mujtaba).
The Imam after the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was his son al-Hasan, the son of the mistress of the women of the worlds, Fatima, daughter of Prophet of Islam Hazrat Muhammad , the Lord of messengers, may Allaah Bless Him and His Holy Progeny.
Hazrat Imam Hasan 's kunyah was Abu Muhammad (A.S). He was born in Medina, on the night of the middle day of the month of Ramadan, three years after the Hijra (624 AD ).
His mother, Fatima, Peace Be on Her, brought him to the Prophet on the seventh day in a silken shawl from Heaven, which Gabriel had brought down to the Prophet, (May Allaah Bless Him and His Holy Progeny).
Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him and His Holy Progeny ) named him Hasan and sacrificed a ram for him in the ceremony of aqiqa.
[It is reported by a group (of authorities), including Ahmad b. Salih. al-Tamimi on the authority of Abd Allah b. Isa, on the authority of Jafar al-Sadiq b. Muhammad, peace be on him;]
"Al-Hasan, peace be on him, was the most similar person to the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, in form, manner and nobility. "
Hazrat Imam Al -Hasan Ibne Ali (AS), was the testamentary trustee (wasi) of the Commander of the faithful, Hazrat Ali Ibn-e-Abi Talib (AS) over his family, his children and his followers.
His testamentary trusteeship is obvious in terms of the outlines of religion, the essential characteristic of wisdom and good-breeding. A great number of scholars have reported this trusteeship .
When the Commander of the faithful, Hazrat Ali Ibn-e-Abi Talib (AS) embraced Shahadat in Kufa , Imam Hasan (AS) addressed the people. He reminded them of his right to Wilayah and Imamat.
The followers of his father pledged allegiance to him in terms of fighting those he fought and making peace with those with whom he made peace.
[Abu Mikhnaf Lut b. Yahya al-Azdi reported: Ashath b. Suwar told me on the authority of Abu Ishaq al-Sabi'i and others, who said;]
Imam Hasan (AS) addressed the people towards dawn on the night in which the Commander of the faithful, Hazrat Ali (AS), embraced Shahadat . He praised and glorified Allaah and blessed the Apostle of Allaah, may Allaah bless him and his family. Then Imam Hasan said:
"There has died tonight a man who was the first among the early (Muslims) in (good) actions. Nor did any later (Muslims) attain his level in (good) actions. He used to fight alongside the Apostle of Allaah, may Allah bless him and his family, and protect him with his own life. The Apostle of Allaah, may Allaah bless him and his family, used to send him forward with his standard while Gabriel supported him on his right and Michael supported him on his left. He would not return until God brought victory through his hands. He, peace be on him, has died on this the night on which Jesus, son of Mary, was taken up (to Heaven), on which Joshua, son of Nuh, the testamentary trustee (wasi) of Moses, peace be on him, died.
He has left behind him no gold and silver except seven hundred dirhams of his stipend (ata'), with which he was intending to buy a servant for his family. "
Then tears overcame him and he wept and the people wept with him.
Then he continued:
"I am the (grand)son of the one who brought the good news. I am the (grand)son of the warner. I am the( grand )son of the man who, with Allah's permission, summoned (the people) to Allaah. I am the (grand) son of the light which shone out (to the world) . I am of the House, from whom Allaah has sent away abomination and whom Allaah has purified thoroughly. I am of the House for whom Allah has required love in his Book, when Allaah, the Most High, said: Say: I do not ask you for any reward except love for (my) kin. Whoever earns good, will increase good for himself .
The good is love for us, the House. "
The people answered him saying:
"No one is more loved by us nor has anyone more right to succession (khilafa). "
When Mu'awiya (LA) learnt that the people have pledged allegiance to Imam Hasan (AS) after Shahadat of Hazrat Ali (AS) on him, he sent a man of secretly to Kufa and a man from Banu al-Qayn to Basra. They were to write reports to muavia . Imam Hasan (AS) learned of that and caught them .
Then al-Hasan, peace be on him, wrote to Muawiya:
You sent men to use deception and to carry out assassinations and you sent out spies as if you want to meet (in battle). That is something which will soon happen so wait for it, if God wills. I have learnt that you have become haughty in a way that no wise man would become haughty.
Muawiya replied to him with his letter. Then sequence of correspondence started between Muawiya (LA) and Imam Hasan (AS) , as Muawiya plainly challenged Imam Hasan (AS) authority over muslims.
Muawiya set off towards Iraq. When he reached the bridge of Manbij, Imam Hasan (AS) reacted
Imam sent Hojr Ibn-e-Oday to call the people together for war. People were slow to (answer) him but then they came forward.
Imam Hasan had a mixed band of men: some of them belonged to his Sh'ia and to his father's: some of them were members of the Muhakimma ; some of them were men who loved discords and were anxious for booty; some of them were doubters; others were tribal supporters who followed the leaders of their tribes without reference to religion.
He set off until he came to Hammam Umar, then he went on to Dayr Kab. He stopped at Sabat, just before the bridge and spent the night there. In the morning, Imam, peace be on him, wanted to test his followers and make their situation clear with regard to obedience to him, so that in that way he might be able to distinguish his friends from his enemies and be in a clear mind (about his position) to meet Mu'awiya and the Syrians. He ordered the call to be made:
The prayer is a general one (which all should attend) (al-salat jamia).
They gathered and he went up on the pulpit and addressed them. He said:
Praise belongs to Allaah whenever a man praises Him. I testify that there is no god but Allah whenever a man testifies to Him. I testify that Muhammad (SAWW) is His servant and His apostle whom He sent with the truth and whom He entrusted with revelation, may Allaah bless him and his family.
By God, I hope that I shall always be with Allah's praise and kindness. I am the sincerest of Allah's creatures in giving advice to them. I have not become one who bears malice to any Muslims nor one who wishes evil or misfortune tor him. Indeed what you dislike about unity (jama'a) is better for you than what you like about division. I see what is better for you better than you see for yourselves. Therefore do not oppose my commands and do not reject my judgement. May God forgive both me and you and may He guide me and you to that in which there is love and satisfaction.
The people began to look at one another and asked each other, "What do you think he intends by what he has just said?
"We think that he intends to make peace with Muawiya and hand over the authority to him" they answered.
"By Gods the man has become an unbelievers they declared and they rushed towards his tent. They plundered him to the extent that they even took his prayer mat from under him. Then Abd al- Rahman b. Abd Allah b. Ja'al al-Azdi set on him and stripped his silk cloak from his shoulder. He remained sitting, still girt with his sword but without his cloak. He called for his horse and mounted it. Groups of his close associates and his Shia surrounded him and kept those who wanted (to attack) him away from him. He said:
Summon (the tribes of) Rabia and Hamdan to me.
The tribes were summoned to him and Imam was surrounded by some sincere companions who defended him, peace be on him, from the people.
A mixed group of others went with him (as well). When he was passing through the narrow pass of Sabat, a man of Banu Asad called al-Jarrah b. Sinan caught hold of the reins of Imam's mule. He had an axe in his hand. He cried:
"(Allahu Akbar)! You have become a polytheist , Hasan, just like your father became a polytheist before. "
Then he stabbed Imam (AS) in the thigh. It penetrated right through to the bone.
A man from Imam Hasan's Shi'a called Abd Allah b. Khatal al- Tai; pulled the axe away from jarrah 's (LA) hand and struck him with it in the stomach. Another man called Zubyan b. Umara attacked Jarrah , struck him upon the nose and killed him. Another man who had been with (al-Jarrah) was caught and killed.
Imam (AS) was carried on a stretcher to al- Mada'in where he was lodged with Sa'd b. Masud al-Thaqafi. The latter was the governor of Maula Ali AS, the commander of the faithful, peace be on him, there and Imam Hasan (AS) had retaind him in that position.
Imam (AS) was distracted by his own (discomfort) and with treating his wound.
(In the meantime) a group of the tribal leaders wrote secretly to Mu'awiya offering to accept his authority . They urged him to come to them and they guaranteed to hand over Imam Hasan (AS)to him, when they got to his camp, or to kill him treacherously.
Imam (AS) learnt of that when a letter came to him from Qays b. Sa'd, may Allaah be pleased with him. He had sent Qays with Ubayd Allah bin. Abbas to go on ahead when he had set out from Kufa to meet Muawiya and to drive him out of Iraq, and make himself a commander of a unified people (jama'a). He had said to Ubayd Allah:
If you are struck down(killed) ,then the commander will be Qays bin. Sad.
Qays b. Sad's letter arrived informing him that they had stopped Muawiya at a village called al-Habubiyya opposite Maskan.
Then Muawiya had sent to Ubayd Allah bin Abbas, urging him to come to him and offering him a million dirhams, half of which he would give him immediately, and the other half on his entry into Kufa.
Ubayd Allah slipped away in the night with his close associates and joined Muawiya's camp.
In the morning the people found their leader ubaydullaah missing.
Qays b. Sa'd, may Allaah be pleased with him, said the prayer with them and took charge of their affairs.
Imam 's had the deep scar of his People's desertion as well as due to the Muhakkima's intentions against Imam (AS), which they made obvious by cursing him, accusing him of disbelief, and declaring that it was lawful to shed his blood and plunder his property.
There remained no one to protect him from his unfortunate predicament except the close associates from his father's Shia and his own Shia, and they were a group which could not resist the Syrian soldiers.
Muawiya wrote to him about a truce and peace treaty. Muawiya also sent Imam the letters of Imam's followers in which they had guaranteed to kill Imam AS treacherously or to hand Imam (AS) over.
Muawiya (LA)offered Imam many conditions .Imam (AS) was aware of Muawiya (LA)'s deception .
However Imam could find no escape from assenting to his demands to abandon the war and bring about a truce because of the weakness of Imam (AS)'s followers' understanding of his right, their corrupt attitude towards Imam (AS) and their opposition to Imam
(In addition, Imam was aware) of the view of many of them in declaring it lawful to shed Imam's blood and to hand Imam (AS)over to his Muawiya (LA).
(He also knew) of his cousin's desertion (of him) and his joining Muawiya (LA), as well as the inclination of the people towards the immediate present and their reluctance (to show concern) for the future.
It was under these heart rending conditions that the brave son of Ali Ibn-e-Abi Talib was forced to accept the treaty . He stipulated:
That the cursing of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, should be abandoned and the practice of using the personal prayer (qunut) in the formal prayer (salat) (as prayer) against him should be set aside;
That his Shia, may Allaah be pleased with them, should be given security and that none of them should be exposed to any evil; That each of them who had certain rights should attain those rights.
Muawiya accepted all that and made a treaty with him to observe that. He swore to Imam that he would fulfil it. When the truce had been concluded, Muawiya went on until he reached al-Nukhayla. That was on a Friday; he prayed the mid-morning prayer (duha al nahar) with the people, and he addressed them. In his address, he Said
By God, I have not fought against you to make you pray, nor to fast, nor to make the pilgrimage, nor to pay zakat. Indeed you do that (already). I fought so that I might have power over you and God has given that to me when you were reluctant to (obey) Him. Indeed I have been requested by al-Hasan, peace be on him, (to give him) things and I have given things to him. All of them are now under my foot. And from now on I will not fulfil anything.
Then Muawia (LA) went on until he entered Kufa. He resided there for several days. When the pledge of allegiance by its inhabitants had to be carried out, he went up on the pulpit and addressed the people. He mentioned the commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and that he had taken from him and from al-Hasan, peace be on him, what he had taken.
Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, were present. Al- Husayn, peace be on him, rose to reply but al-Hasan, peace be on him, took him by the hand and made him sit down. Then he, himself, (al-Hasan) arose and spoke:
O you who mention Ali, I am al-Hasan and Ali was my father. You are Muawiya and your father was Sakhr (Abu Sufyan). My mother was Fatima and your mother was Hind. My grand father was the Apostle of God and your grandfather was Harb. My grandmother was Khadija and your grandmother was Futayla. May Allaaah curse him who tries to reduce our reputation and to diminish our nobility, who does evil against our antiquity and yet who has been ahead of us in unbelief and hypocrisy.
Groups of the people in the mosque shouted out: "Amen, Amen"
When the peace between Imam peace be on him, and Muawiya was concluded in the way we have mentioned, Imam (AS) peace be on him, left for Medina.
He resided there, restraining his anger, staying close to his house, and awaiting the command of his Lord, the Mighty and High, until Muawiya (LA) had completed ten years of his administration.
(Then) the latter decided to have the pledge of allegiance given to his son, Yazid, (as his successor). He communicated secretly with Ju'da, daughter of al-Ash'ath bin Qays-
Juda'a was the wife of Imam Hasan (AS) and Muawiya urged her to poison him. Muawiya (LA) gave an undertaking to her that he would marry her to his son, Yazid, and he sent her a hundred thousand dirhams.
Juda gave to Imam the poison to drink but he lingered on sick for forty days. He passed along his (final) road in the month of Safar in the year 50 A. H. (670 AD ). At that time, Imam (AS) was forty-eight years of age.
His succession (to the Imamate) had been for ten years. His brother and testamentary trustee (wasi), al-Husayn, peace be on him, undertook the washing and shrouding of his body, and buried him in the cemetery of al Baqi.
The biggest lesson from the heart rending life history of Imam Hasan (AS) is that when followers
turn into deserters , even the Imam (AS) of the time is martyred by lowly man like Muawiya (LA) .
Reference : Sheikh Mufid's Kitaab-al-Irshad.